Keith Levene, a founding member of The Clash and later guitarist for Public Image Ltd, has died aged 65, his close friend has said.
Author Adam Hammond said Levene, who died on Friday, was one of the most influential guitarists of all time.
Levene founded The Clash with Mick Jones in the 1970s but left before they became successful.
He then joined Public Image Ltd (PiL), the post-punk band set up by John Lydon after he left the Sex Pistols.
During his time with The Clash, Levene played a central role in persuading frontman Joe Strummer to leave his then band, The 101ers, and join them.
While with Public Image Ltd, Levene is credited with helping to pioneer an angular post-punk sound that is still regularly cited.
Levene left Public Image Ltd in 1983 – before the band's wave of success in the mid-1980s that saw them return twice to the top 10, but he continued co-writing with the band.
He then moved to Los Angeles and in his later career worked with the Red Hot Chili Peppers and a number of hip hop acts.
Hammond said his friend had been living with liver cancer for two years, but his death had been unexpected.
"He had so many plans – there were so many things he was doing," Hammond said.
Levene had just completed a book about Public Image Ltd, co-written with Hammond, and had been working on music to accompany it.
Hammond paid an emotional tribute to his friend, writing on Twitter: "There is no doubt that Keith was one of the most innovative, audacious and influential guitarists of all time.
"Keith sought to create a new paradigm in music and with willing collaborators John Lydon and Jah Wobble succeeded in doing just that.
"His guitar work over the nine minutes of Theme, the first track on the first PiL album, defined what alternative music should be."
It is with great sadness I report that my close friend and legendary Public Image Limited guitarist Keith Levene passed away on Friday 11th November.
There is no doubt that Keith was one of the most innovative, audacious and influential guitarists of all time.
After news of his death broke, his former bandmates paid tribute to Levene on social media.
PiL member Martin Atkins paid tribute to Levene's "unique talent", while the band's former bassist Jah Wobble remembered his family.
A sad time to learn of the passing of guitar giant Keith Levene. We had our ups and downs that had mellowed over time. My respect for his unique talent never will. @pilofficial https://t.co/IW3PTa1TOa
Thanks for all the messages of condolence re Keith …but it’s his partner and family who are really impacted by his passing 🙏👍❤️
Fellow musicians also paid tribute.
Former Oasis bassist and member of Ride, Andy Bell, said the sound Levene made on the guitar was "like ground-up diamonds fired at you through a high pressure hose".
RIP Keith Levene – a guitar tone like ground up diamonds fired at you through a high pressure hose
Band Massive Attack hailed Levene as an "artist, architect and re-inventor of punk rock".
RIP Keith Levene.
Artist,architect and re inventor of punk rock
[at the studio in Bristol in 2007 with Mark Stewart] pic.twitter.com/3nxYga7a76
Mike Scott of The Waterboys said: "Travel on well Keith Levene. You innovated, you chimed, you Clashed, you soundtracked Johnny Rotten's last great moments and you once trounced me at Space Invaders."
Travel on well Keith Levene. You innovated, you chimed, you Clashed, you soundtracked Johnny Rotten's last great moments and you once trounced me at Space Invaders.
Music magazine Rolling Stone said the musician's "influential fretwork shaped the sound of punk and post-punk to come".
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