Call us @ 08069405205

InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
GS Paper 2:
GS Paper 3:
Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay/ Governance)
Facts for Prelims
Syllabus: Ancient India
Source: TOI
Context: Excavations at one of the biggest necropolises at Juna Khatiya village (Kutch, Gujarat) show rows of graves with valuable items such as Ceramic pots, beaded jewellery, animal bones etc.
What is a necropolis?
A necropolis is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek meaning “city of the dead“. The pyramid at Giza, in Egypt, is an example of a necropolis — it’s the tomb of an Egyptian pharaoh.
Burial practices in the Indus Valley Civilization:

Significance of studying burial practices:
About Indus Valley Civilization:
The cultures of the Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization), are thought to range in existence anywhere from 5500 BCE to 1700 BCE. This civilization reached its peak maturity from 2600 BCE to 1600 BCE.

Insta Links
Society in IVC
Mains Links
Q. Examine how excavations of remnants of the Harappan Civilization in India have helped historians to understand Harappan culture. (10M)
Prelims Links
Q. With reference to the difference between the culture of Rigvedic Aryans and Indus Valley people, which of the following statements is/are correct? (UPSC 2017)
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer: C
Which of the following characterizes/characterizes the people of the Indus Civilization? (UPSC 2013)
Select the correct statement/ statements using the codes given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None of the statements given above is correct
Answer: B
Syllabus: Indian Judiciary
Source: Indian Express, Indian Express
Context: Vice President Jagdeep Dhankar criticised the Supreme Court for using the Basic Structure Doctrine to strike down constitutional amendments by Parliament, such as the NJAC Act.
What is the basic structure doctrine?
The Doctrine of Basic Structure is a form of judicial review that is used to test the legality of any legislation by the courts.
Basic Structure Doctrine (BSD) test:
The origins of the basic structure doctrine are found in the post-war German Constitution law which, after the Nazi regime, was amended to protect some basic laws.
After a reversal of key legislation including land reforms; nationalization of banks; abolition of the privy purse- the Parliament brought in a constitutional amendment to give itself the power to amend any part of the Constitution and passed a law that it cannot be reviewed by the courts.
What are the basic features of the Indian Constitution?
The content of the doctrine is derived from the several judgements of the court e.g. judicial review, rule of law, federalism, and democratic republic structure are identified as basic features.
Significance of Basic Structure:
Why is the doctrine criticised?
However, the doctrine rests on a sound structural interpretation of the Constitution. Many of the critics of the basic structure such as Justice YV Chandrachud, former Chief Justice of India found himself in the minority in the Kesavananda Bharati ruling. However, in subsequent rulings where the Court applied the test, Justice Chandrachud applied the doctrine to limit Parliament’s powers.
Related Concept:
Who was Kesavanand Bharati?
Kesavananda Bharati (9 December 1940 – 6 September 2020) was a Hindu monk who served as the Shankaracharya (head) of Edneer Mutt, a Hindu monastery in Kasaragod district, Kerala, India from 1961 until his death.
The case in which Bharati had challenged a Kerala Land Reform Act nearly four decades ago set the principle that the Supreme Court is the guardian of the basic structure of the constitution

Parliamentary sovereignty is a concept which holds that the legislative body has absolute sovereignty and is supreme over all other government institutions, including executive or judicial bodies. In which the sovereign legislature may change or repeal any previous legislation and is not bound by any written law like a constitution.
In a democracy, parliamentary sovereignty can’t be inviolable. Because
Insta Links
Basic Structure Doctrine
Mains Links
Q. The basic structure doctrine prevents the abuse of power by the executive and legislature, preventing it from becoming a majoritarian regime. Examine. (15M)
Prelims Links
Consider the following statements: (UPSC 2020)
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 only
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: B
Syllabus: Laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection of vulnerable sections
Source: IE
Direction: The article discusses the need to frame new guidelines for the Preliminary Assessment of children (between 16-18) in conflict with the law as adults under the JJ Act.
Context: The NCPCR has come up with draft guidelines on the preliminary assessment of whether certain minors are to be tried under law as adults in particular cases, under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act.
Need for the NCPCR’s draft guidelines:
The draft guidelines:
National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR):
●        It is an Indian statutory body established by an Act of Parliament – the Commission for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005.
●        The Commission works under the aegis of the Union Ministry of Women and Child Development and became operational in 2007.
●        It is mandated to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms align with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Indian Constitution and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
●        As defined by the commission, a child includes a person up to the age of 18 years.
JJ Act, 2015:
●        The Ministry of Women and Child Development introduced the Act to replace the Juvenile Delinquency Law and the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act of 2000.
●        One of the main provisions of the Act is that minors in conflict with the law between the ages of 16 and 18 can be tried as adults.
Insta Links:
Juvenile Justice Act amendment may backfire
Mains Links:
Q. Is the National Commission for Women able to strategize and tackle the problems that women face in both public and private spheres? Give reasons in support of your answer. (UPSC 2017)
Syllabus: Disaster management
Source: WEF
Context: World Economic Forum (WEF) has released Global Risk Report 2023
Key findings:

What is Global Risk?
It is defined as the possibility that something bad may happen which will affect all countries

About Global risk report:
The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year.
About WEF:
It was established in 1971 as a not-for-profit foundation (HQ: Geneva, Switzerland). The World Economic Forum brings together decision-makers from across society to work on projects and initiatives that make a real difference.

Fig: Founder and Executive Chairman of WEF: Klaus Schwab
Some major reports published by WEF are:
Insta Links:
Towards sustainable growth
Syllabus: Cooperative Societies – Agricultural Finance
Source: PIB, The Hindu
Context: The Union Cabinet approved the setting up of three new cooperative bodiesnational multi-state cooperative export society, national multi-state cooperative organic society and national multi-state cooperative seed society — under the Multi-State Cooperative Societies (MSCS) Act, 2002.
Will help in achieving the goal of “Sahakar-se-Samriddhi” through the inclusive growth model of cooperatives.
State of cooperatives in India:
There are about 8.50 lakh cooperatives, which have around 29 crore members mainly from rural areas, who will benefit from the move.

Insta Links:
Ministry of Cooperation
Mains Link:
Q. Analyze the role of Cooperative societies as an economic driver towards national development.
New research from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University, and laboratories in Italy and Switzerland have found that Romans used a ‘hot-mixing’ method of concrete to create their durable structures.
How did Romans make durable concrete?
Romans employed a hot mixing method and used quicklime in conjunction with, or instead of, slaked lime for producing concrete. Hot mixing was the key to the super-durable nature.

Fig: A schematic of the proposed mechanism for self-healing within ancient Roman mortars. Source: Science Advances
About Romans:
Roman civilization refers to the period from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD.
The ancient Romans were masters of engineering, constructing vast networks of roads, aqueducts, ports and massive buildings, whose remains have survived for two millennia
Many of these structures were built with concrete: Rome’s famed Pantheon, which has the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome and was dedicated in 128 CE, is still intact.

Fig:: Rome’s famed Pantheon
Source: The Hindu
Context: The Office of the Registrar-General of India (RGI) is following the set of criteria set out by the Lokur Committee nearly 60 years ago to define any new community as a Scheduled Tribe
The criteria of the Lokur Committee for recognition of any community under the ST list are:
However, over the years, the criteria have come under severe criticism.
Previously Central government has called these criteria “obsolete”, “condescending”, “dogmatic”, and “rigid” and it was considering a proposal to change the criteria for scheduling new communities as STs.

About RGI:
Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, founded in 1961 by the Government of India Ministry of Home Affairs, for arranging, conducting and analysing the results of the demographic surveys of India including the Census of India and Linguistic Survey of India.
Source: The Hindu
 Context: The Central Government’s integrated food security scheme has been named the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PMGKAY), under which free foodgrains are being given to more than 80 crore poor people from January 1
Source: Live Mint
Context: India has sought restoration of the preferential access to the US market that was revoked by Washington in 2019.
About GSP status:
GSP is the largest and oldest U.S. trade preference program. Established by the Trade Act of 1974, GSP promotes economic development by eliminating duties on thousands of products when imported from one of 119 designated beneficiary countries and territories.
Origin of GSP
It was 1st instituted by the UNCTAD conference in 1971
Why US terminated India’s GSP status?
President Donald Trump has terminated India’s designation as a beneficiary developing nation under the key GSP trade programme due to India’s failure to provide the United States with assurances that it will provide equitable and reasonable access to its markets in numerous sectors
How has the termination of GSP impacted India?
India was the largest beneficiary of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) status in 2017, with $5.7 billion worth of imports into the US given duty-free status. About 2,000 products including auto parts and textile materials were allowed to enter the US duty-free.
Current Indo-US trade:
Bilateral trade between India and the US rose to $119.5 billion in 2021-22 from $80.5 billion in 2020-21

Source: Indian Express
Context: Union Cabinet has also approved the incentive scheme for the promotion of RuPay Debit Cards and low-value BHIM-UPI transactions (person-to-merchant) for a period of one year from April 2022.
Under this:
Banks will be incentivized to promote Point of Sale (PoS) and e-commerce transactions using RuPay and UPI (UPI lite and UPI 123 Pay)
About UPI
It is a real-time payment system (started in 2016) to link multiple bank accounts into a single mobile application. It works by SIM binding and was allowed only for Indian mobile numbers but now has been allowed for NRIs, NRE (non-resident external) and NRO( non-resident ordinary) international mobile numbers from 10 countries including the USA, Canada, Australia etc.

Fig: Working of UPI
About NPCI:
 National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), an umbrella organisation for operating retail payments and settlement systems in India, is an initiative of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) under the provisions of the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007, for creating a robust Payment & Settlement Infrastructure in India.
Source: The Hindu
Context:  A new study shows evidence of what could be an active mantle plume beneath the surface of the red planet
About new findings:
About Mantle Plumes:

Source: The Hindu
Context: A recently developed surgical knife capable of identifying tumours can detect endometrial cancer within seconds, allowing people with healthy uteruses to get the ‘all-clear’ faster.
According to the World Cancer Research Fund International, womb or endometrial cancer is the 6th most commonly occurring cancer among people with uteruses.
About iKnife:
The researchers found that a surgical tool called iKnife could accurately detect the presence of endometrial cancer. The iKnife is already being used to spot breast and brain cancer
How it works:
The knife uses electric currents on biopsy tissue and then analyses the vapourised aerosols from the tissue in a mass spectrometer to give real-time information about activity in the tissue.
The study noted that the iKnife reliably diagnosed endometrial cancer in tissue within seconds with an accuracy of 89%. This would greatly minimise the delays faced by patients who wait for a normal histopathological diagnosis.

Source: The Hindu
Context: A study published has reported a way to achieve relatively high efficiency in an artificial photosynthesis reaction in which water is split into oxygen and hydrogen using sunlight and a catalyst. The technique is called photocatalysis.
The current method to make green hydrogen:
The conventional way to produce green hydrogen is electrolysis, where water is split into its constituent elements by passing a large current through it. If both the electrolyser and the source of electricity are green, the resulting hydrogen is also green.
Currently, most of the hydrogen in India is produced by steam-reforming: methane is mixed with water in a reactor at 800-900º C and 20-30 atmospheres of pressure to yield hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The resulting hydrogen is thus ‘grey’.
Photocatalytic STH is inspired by photosynthesis, where leaves use energy from incident sunlight to split water into oxygen and hydrogen. Here, “the process consists of a semiconductor photocatalyst wafer immersed in freshwater or seawater.
When photons in sunlight strike the wafer, they dislodge electrons in its atoms, which trigger a redox reaction in the water and separate hydrogen and oxygen. The energy source is sunlight and the feedstock is water – both abundant on Earth and green by nature.
In a 10-hour test, the group recorded an efficiency of 7.4% with tap water and 6.6% with seawater, probably “the result of ions or other impurities present” in the liquids, according to the paper. The 9.2% record required deionised water. The STH efficiency was 3% in a 140-hour test.

Source: The Hindu
Context: Scientists have found the remains of four species of dinosaurs, including a megaraptor, in an inhospitable valley in Chilean Patagonia that has emerged over the past decade as an important fossil deposit.
They also identified two specimens of Unenlagiinae, closely related to velociraptors and which have a “novel evolutionary character, which would indicate that this is a new species of unenlagine or perhaps a representative of a different clade (group).
They also found remains of two bird species: an Enantiornithe, the most diverse and abundant group of birds of the Mesozoic; and Ornithurinae, a group directly related to present-day birds.

Articles which may be important for optionals
Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE
Please subscribe to Our podcast channel HERE
Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE
Follow our Twitter Account HERE
Follow our Instagram ID HERE  .
Follow us on LinkedIn : HERE
No Related Posts found
InsightsIAS has redefined, revolutionised and simplified the way aspirants prepare for UPSC Civil Services Exam. Today it’s India’s top website and an institution when it comes to imparting quality content, guidance and teaching for IAS Exam.
InsightsIAS Headquarters, Nanda Ashirwad Complex, 3rd Floor, Above Village Hyper Market, Chandralyout Main Road, Attiguppe , Bengaluru – 560040
Now reach all our Branches with ease!!!! Call us @ 08069405205
Want to work at Insights IAS? Write in to us at
Copyright © Insights Active Learning


Leave a Comment